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Primary Source Documents

1. Treaties with St. Boniface and Treaties Between the Holy See and King Pepin the Short of the Franks; Pepin delivered and defended the Papal states of the Holy See, confirming the "temporal powers" of Rome and laying the groundwork for his son, Charlemagne. to create the First Holy Roman Empire. (751­800 A.D.)

2. Charter of the First Holy Roman Empire, 800 A.D.

3. King John of England breaks with the Roman Catholic Church, 1209. Edict of Excommunication of John of England.

4. Treaty of King John of England, Cede to Innocent III, 1213 A.D. John agrees that England and Ireland are both "fiefs" of Rome, and that his own crown will be forfeited to Rome if he breaks his sworn agreements favoring the Pope.

5. Magna Carta 1215 A.D. In signing the Magna Carta King John silently invoked the 1213 Papal agreement relinquishing his crown to the Pope. Thereafter, all lands explored and claimed in behalf of Catholic Monarchs, including the British Monarch as a vassal of Rome, were in fact first and wholly claimed in behalf of the Holy See, which returned a portion of the profit to the vassal monarchs in the form of "jurisdictions". The Holy See retained the global jurisdiction of the air, granted jurisdiction of the land to temporal authorities (recognized monarchs), and granted the international jurisdiction of the sea to the British Crown Temple to be administered under the ancient Law of the Sea (international admiralty) and Law Merchant (now Uniform Commercial Code).


6. Charter(s) of the Global Estate Trust (1455, 1456, 1479, and 1492 et alia) by Papal Bulls, especially the Inter Ceatera of May 3 and 4, 1493, by Pope Alexander VI.

7. European Treaties bearing on the History of the United States and its Dependencies to 1648. - Frances Gardiner Davenport, editor, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1917, Washington, D.C., especially pp. 75-78.

8. "The Privileges and Prerogatives Granted by Their Catholic Majesties to Christopher Columbus April 30, 1492"

9. "The First Charter of Virginia" April 10, 1606

10. "The Second Charter of Virginia" 23 May 1609

11.  "The Third Charter of Virginia" March 12, 1611

12. "The Charter of New England: 1620" It becomes obvious from the above that all these E(states) were formed as commercial ventures under the auspices of Monarchies owing fealty to the Holy See.

13. "Cestui Que Vie Act of 1666" - Sets forth the nature and construction of Roman Inferior Trusts in England to allow state management of property belonging of unknown survivors of the Black Death and the Fire of London.

14. "Charter for the Province of Pennsylvania-1681" - More proof of the commercial and non-religious nature of the founding principles that the Holy See employs in managing its temporal affairs and providing governmental services.

15. "Charter of the Corporation of the Bank of England 1694"

16. The Articles of Confederation 1781

17. The Treaty(ies) of Paris plus Amends, 1784-90


18. The Treaty of Westminster, 1794, a "Treaty of Amity, Commerce, and Navigation" between HIS BRITANNIC MAJESTY AND THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, November 19, 1794, in which the British Crown commercial company and its American version agreed to peace in perpetuity.

19. The Northwest Ordinance, 1787.

20. The Constitution for the united States of America, 1789.

21. Act of February 20, 1792, Establishing a General Post Office for the United States government, in addition to the already existing general post office.

22. 1818: U.S. v. Bevans, 16 U.S.336. Establishes two separate jurisdictions within the United States Of America: 1. The "federal zone" and 2. "the 50 States".

23. The Treaty of Ghent, 1814

24. Treaty of Verona, 1822, American Diplomatic Code, 1778 - 1884, vol. 2 ; Elliott, p. 179 and CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE., 64th CONGRESS, 1st SESSION, VOLUME 53, PART 7, Page 6781, 25 April 1916, in which the Higher Contracting Powers agreed to undermine the American government.

25. "Bankruptcy Law (of England)" 1826

26. "First Bank Act (America)" 1863

27. The Lieber Code also known as General Order 100, April 24, 1863, by President Abraham Lincoln as Commander in Chief, making the Union Army responsible for proper administration of the monetary system, protection of the National Trust, and fair treatment of the Southern States and their inhabitants during reconstruction. The Lieber Code requires the Army, or in modern terms, the Department of Defense, to pay reparations to all non-combatant civilians harmed. This Code


has never been repealed or changed. It is the reason that we continue to have "Secretary Generals" and "US Postmaster Generals" and "Attorney Generals" and "Inspector Generals" and "Lieutenant Governors".

28. The Reform Act of 1867 (Britain) - First use of enfranchisement as a political tool to undermine legal standing of living men under Chancellor of the Exchequer, Benjamin Disraeli.

29. The Reconstruction Act of 1867 -American counterpart

30. "the Constitution of the United States of America" 1871 - established by the "US Congress" acting as Board of Directors to form the United States of America, Inc. as a Trust Management Organization to operate both the municipal government of the to come corporate United States and to administer and fulfill the National Trust Indenture and service contracts owed the now-50 states known as The United States of America.

31. The Act of 1871-Formally incorporated the municipal (city state) government of the District of Columbia as a separate nation operated according to its own government and code.

32. Merriam's Estate, 36 NE 505, 506 22: "... the United States is to be regarded as a body politic and corporate.... It is suggested that the United States is to be regarded as a domestic corporation, so far as the State of New York is concerned. We think this contention has no support in reason or authority.... The United States is a foreign corporation in relation to a State."

33. US. v. Anthony, 24 Fed. 829 (1873) `"The term resident and citizen of the United States is distinguished from a Citizen of one of the several states, in that the former is a special class of citizen created by Congress." Though the judge fails to fully admit the circumstance, "US citizenship" was created as an excuse for the "government" to claim ownership of all the slaves supposedly freed by the Civil War as chattel backing Union war


debts. To this day, black Americans have only "Civil Rights".

34. U.S. v. Cruikshank, 92 U.S. 542, 23 L.Ed. 588, (1.875). "There is in our political system [two governments], a government of the Several [50] States; and a government of the United States. Each is distinct from the other and has citizens of its own. A person may be a citizen of the United States and of a State, and as such has different rights."

35. United States v. Germane, 99 U.S. 508 (1879), Norton v. Shelby County, 118 U.S. 425, 441, 6 S.Ct. 1121 (1866), etc., dating to Pope v. Commissioner, 138 F.2d 1006, 1009 (6th Cir. 1943); where the state is concerned, the most recent corresponding decision was State v. Pinckney, 276 N.W. 2d 433,436 (Iowa 1979). All these are supporting case law establishing res judicata regarding the nature of The United States (original TMO) and a State (one of "Several States" of the Union) as first expressed in the Merriam's Estate case cited above.

36. Title 8 USC §§ 1101(a), (3), (21) and (22) and Public Law, 15 U.S. Stat., Chapter 249, pps 223-224. Under Federal Code (the internal "law" of the United States of America, Inc.) there is no such thing as dual citizenship.

37. Title 8 USC 1101(a)(21) the birthright status of "American Nationals" is recognized. Under the statutory law of the United States of America, Inc. there is absolute distinction between "US citizens" and "American Nationals".

38. The Clearfield Doctrine and USC Title 22: When a government operates as a commercial corporation it descends to the level of all such corporations and has no special powers or attributes. It is only when acting as a properly formed unincorporated Body Politic that a government exercises sovereign power of any kind. Virtually all governments operating in the world today are for-profit corporations under contract to provide governmental services. The American "US


(Major)" government (The United States of America) hasn't operated as a sovereign entity since 1865. The US (Minor) government (the corporate United States) operates as a corporation.

39. The Insular Tariff Cases, US Supreme Court, 1900­1904 - A series of US Supreme Court cases that resulted in allowing Congress to operate "the corporate United States" - DC, Guam, Puerto Rico, et alia - as a separate and foreign nation state without regard for the requirements imposed by The Constitution for the united States of America. From one of the cases, Downes v. Bidwell, 182 U.S. 244 (1901), we quote Justice Marshall Harlan writing in dissent: "...two national governments, one to be maintained under the Constitution, with all its restrictions, the other to be maintained by Congress outside and independently of that instrument, by exercising such powers as other nations of the earth are accustomed to... a radical and mischievous change in our system of government will result... We will, in that event, pass from the era of constitutional liberty guarded and protected by a written constitution into an era of legislative absolutism... It will be an evil day for American liberty if the theory of a government outside the supreme law of the land finds lodgment in our constitutional jurisprudence."

40. Charter of The Corporation Trust Company of America, 1907 A.D.

41. Hendrick v. Maryland S. C. Reporter's Rd., 610­625. (1914) "A "US Citizen" upon leaving the District of Columbia becomes involved in "interstate commerce" as a "resident" does not have the common-law right to travel, of a Citizen of one of the several states." This "power of the Congress to rule over the people of the District of Columbia and the Insular states was used as an excuse to impose Driver Licenses on "US citizens" living outside the confines of the United States of America and mis-applied to Citizens of the corporate United States


---so-called "State Citizens" who were entrapped into contract by, a process of mis-administration and legal presumption. This applies to the myriad "licenses" and "codes" that have been mis-applied to the American People under undisclosed, misrepresented, and otherwise invalid private contracts.

42. The Federal Reserve Act, 1913. Allows a private non­federal for-profit banking association doing business under the purposefully deceitful name of "Federal Reserve" to commandeer the national monetary and economic systems, allowing these banks to print money and back only a small "fractional" portion of it with gold or silver. Later, they will be allowed to back the money with nothing at all but the promises of the US Congress.

43. Trading With the Enemy Act, Public Law No. 65-91 (40 Stat. L. 411) October 6, 1917, defines non-combatant American civilian Nationals and their States as "enemies" of the corporate United States. This Act originally excluded citizens of the United States, but in the Act of March 9, 1933, Section 2 amended this to included "any person within the United States or any place subject to the jurisdiction thereof'. This has been used as a self-serving and transparent excuse to commit fraud and violence against Americans who never recognized any such "state of war" between themselves or their States and the corporate United States and who were instead already owed full fiduciary care under commercial equity contract (The Constitution for the united States of America), reparations under the Lieber Code, and trusteeship from the Global Estate Trust.

44. The Maternity Act /The Sheppard-Towner Act, 1921, first foray into socialized medicine and "registration" of live births.

45. Minutes of the Geneva Convention(s), May 1930. Declare international bankruptcy via treaties between the G5 nations. The United States of America, Inc. was bankrupted internationally along with the Trust Management Organizations of four European nations including Great Britain, which caused the


domino effect of bankruptcy worldwide. Note that the real property assets held by each national trust - land, vegetation, animals, natural resources, etc. - are held in perpetual trust and are required to be unaffected by the ups and downs of any Trust Management Organization charged as Trustees to administer business affairs in behalf of the beneficiaries, who are the living people who inhabit the land of each country and continent.

46. Amended Charter renaming the above as The Corporation Trust Company, April 15, 1930.

47. Executive Order 6073 issued on March 10, 1933, created the "bank holiday" and closed the doors of the bankrupt government chartered banks (they were bankrupted as a whole because they operated under government charter, and because of the Great Fraud committed by the Governors of the several States, not because they were individually bankrupt).

48. Executive Order 6102 issued on April 5, 1933, prohibited "hoarding" gold and required people to turn it (their private property) in to the Federal Reserve Banks (the creditors) under the false and undisclosed presumption that they were volunteering to stand as sureties for the debts of the United States of America, Inc.

49. Executive Order 6111 issued on April 20, 1933, prohibited people from exporting gold.

The creditors (banks) claimed that all the gold in private hands in the Several (now 50) States no longer belonged to the State Citizens and other Inhabitants, as a result of having been pledged to the State by corporate officers of the privately owned and operated United States of America, Inc., acting as deceitfully named State "Governors", so confiscation of privately held American gold resources was instituted under conditions of false pretense and semantic deceit by officers of a bankrupted privately owned and operated Trust Management Organization and their creditors, privately owned and operated international banks -


the World Bank (now IMF), IBRD, and Federal Reserve.


H.J. Res 192, 73rd Congress, First Session, principally prior enrolled as Public Law, U.S. Statutes at Large, Vol. 1, Public Acts, 3rd Congress, 2nd Session, Chapter 48, especially 48.48.112 -This is the commercial remedy that the perpetrators were required to create to make their confiscation of private gold and hypothecated titles to private land and business holdings "legal". This remedy like the underlying surreptitious hypothecation of debt and claims against private property made by the officers of the United States of America, Inc. against the American Nationals was never widely circulated or disclosed for obvious reasons. Unaware of how they'd been injured and abused by those obligated to act as their Trustees, the inhabitants of the land were equally unable to access this remedy, which was for the government corporation to literally pre-pay all debts owed by the foreign situs trusts created to stand as sureties of the United States of America, Inc. Like irresponsible teenagers promising to make the payments on a car, the US Congress "resolved" to pay its debts in such a way that the presumed co-signers on US Congress loans, the foreign situs trusts they named after American Nationals - would never default, and in theory, the living American Nationals would never be dunned or otherwise impacted by their fraudulent semantic deceits and false claims.

In actual practice, the voucher and coupon system which should have been ubiquitously implemented never was, and the Internal Revenue Service, the agency responsible for collecting taxes and dispensing credit owed to individual accounts was split into two distinct and separate entities, the Internal Revenue Service operated by the Federal Reserve for collecting taxes, and the IRS operated by the International Monetary Fund for dispensing credit, which colluded to confuse and


defraud the living people, billing them "as if" they owed the tax bills and forcing them to pay the debts of the make-believe foreign situs trusts operated under their names using Federal Reserve Notes, a process that not only failed to pay the debts of these "fictional citizens" of the corporate United States but left the American Nationals even further in debt as a result of interest and service fees and import duties charged by the same banks.


50. U.S. Bankruptcy Act of 1933, especially Section 101 (11) - Declares the American People as the Creditors, and the "United States" as the Obligator, or Debtor. This established that the signatures of Americans are to be used as credit, and the "State" franchises of the United States of America, Inc, d.b.a. "United States", "State of Ohio", etc., and their Trustees, d.b.a. Secretary of the Treasury of Puerto Rico, Custodian of Alien Property, Comptroller of the Currency, etc., were to discharge all debts.

51. "Charges Against Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve Bank System, The Comptroller of the Currency and Secretary of the United States Treasury brought by Congressman Louis T. McFadden, May 23, 1933, Co-Chair of House Banking Committee, US Congressional Record, pp. 4055-4058"

52 The Naturalization Act of 1935. More deceitful efforts to entrap American Nationals and claim that they were "US citizens" subject to the whims of the "US CONGRESS".

53. 49 Statute 3097 Treaty Series 881 (Convention on Rights and Duties of States) December 26, 1933 - enacted as a result of the bankruptcies, both national and international, by the US CONGRESS - newly redefined to operate the UNITED STATES, INC. - replaced all "statutory law" (Federal Code and State Statutes) with international law. That is, the bankrupted United States of America, Inc. continued to function in reorganization under Federal Code, but the UNITED STATES,


INC., operated by the IMF, operates under the Uniform Commercial Code and International Admiralty jurisdiction.

54. Social Security Act, 1935. Contrives under conditions of conceit and non-disclosure to register everyone applying for any job, public or private, and to conscript them under these conditions to act as unpaid "voluntary" Withholding Agents in behalf of the Puerto Rican Estate Trusts set up "in their names".

55. U.S. Congressional Record Proceedings and Debates of the 76th Congress, Monday August 19, 1940, Third Session, Debate of Honorable Judge Thorkelson. - "Steps Toward British Union, A World State, and International Strife." - Part 1".

56, Alien Registration Act, 1940- mandated registration of the names of all living Americans to create estate trusts operating under their names in foreign maritime and admiralty jurisdictions.

57. Buck Act, 1940 -"enfranchised" the ESTATES of American Nationals as "dual citizens" of The United States of America, and the corporate United States - and their respective franchises of the UNITED STATES, INC. operated as "STATES of States" (See UCC 1-308 Definitions) allowed this "enfranchisement" to stand as an excuse for claims of ownership and controlling interest in the assets of the individual ESTATE trusts - including the living men and women as slaves, and their private property as chattels still presumed to be "surety" for the debts of the United States of America, Inc. owed for the governmental services performed by the UNTIED STAPES, INC.

58. The Bretton Woods Accords, Inclusive, 1944, succeeded until 1971 in partial restoration of the Gold and Silver Standard, and as a secondary result, ceded control of all the agencies, assets, departments, logos, symbols, etc., to the UNITED NATIONS and its International Monetary Fund (IMF) agency doing business as the UNITED STATES. All STATE OF ALASKA offices are in fact UN corporate offices.


59. Hooven Allison Vs. Evatt, 65 SCt. 70, 8811,321 U.S 652.89 L.Ed.12, 52 (1945) conclusively affirmed that there are two (2) distinctly different United States with TWO OPPOSITE FORMS OF GOVERNMENTS.

60. United Nations Charter, 1946. (Note, the commercial company d.b.a. UNITED NATIONS existed prior to the city­-state being chartered as the "United Nations".)

61. Administrative Procedures Act (1946) provides statutory admission that the ESTATES of American Nationals are the priority creditors of the United States of America, Inc. and provides that American Nationals deemed to be civil executors and "federal contracting officers" administering their own ESTATES are enabled to bring administrative claims against the United States of America, Inc. assets and also against the UNITED STATES. This is where we got two court systems with differently styled names- "The US District Court" and "THE US DISTRICT COURT" for example. This was the remedy offered to the victims of the first fraud for the second fraud carried out against them by the UNITED NATIONS and the US Bankruptcy Trustee, when they rolled the assets of the individual foreign situs trusts into Roman Inferior ESTATE trusts. Like the first remedy, this second remedy was never delivered to the people. The perpetrator banking cartels which were by now funding both the Courts and the COURTS ordered their employees to not recognize the standing and identities of the American Nationals, conveniently laying claim to their ESTATES without providing remedy to them for the theft of controlling interest in their assets and misappropriation of their good faith and credit.

62. MILOSZEWSKI v. SEARS ROEBUCK, 346 F. . 119 (1972)(2.). [Outside of Constitutional authority is 100% private authority-NO lawful authority. 18 USC 2381-85 Treason -- Sedition.] OPINION, FOX, Chief Judge (U.S. District


Court of Michigan). "A mere statement of this fact may not seem very significant: corporations, after all, are not supposed to exercise the governmental powers with which the Bill of Rights is concerned. But this has been radically changed by the emergence of the public-private state. Today private institutions do exercise governmental power; more, indeed, than 'government' itself.... We have two governments in America, one under the Constitution and a much greater one not under the Constitution. In short, the inapplicability of our Bill of Rights is one of the crucial facts of American life today." In fact, American Nationals are owed the Bill of Rights as they always have been. "US citizens" are NOT owed the Bill of Rights. The problem is that we have all been self-interestedly mis­identified as "US citizens" a crime known as "personage" carried out against us by individuals and corporations in our employment and under contract to provide governmental services.

63. Foreign Sovereign Immunity Act, 1976. This releases all "State" laws and statutes to specifically to the Uniform Commercial Code (maritime law). The corporate franchises calling themselves "States" continue to publish their own copyrighted version of the Uniform Commercial Code with addendums and label it as "Statutes" but these have no actual enabling clause.

64. Title 22 USC, Chapter 11, all public officials designated foreign agents.

65. 22 CFR 92, 12-92.31 "Foreign Relationship" requires an oath of office, and Title 8 USC 1481 states that once an oath of office is taken, citizenship is relinquished. As a result, when American Nationals are arbitrarily defined as "US citizens" and harassed by agents of the corporate United States and the UNITED STATES, INC. into acting as "Withholding Agents"; "Federal Contracting Agents"; or members of the Armed Forces, or as Federal Employees of any stamp, they temporarily and for as long as they continue to act "in office" lose the protections


and benefits of their birthright citizenship. This "presumption of employment" is often used by the corporate administrative tribunals to defraud and abuse American Nationals who are owed all the protections of The Constitution for the united States of America and the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights and also good faith service under contract.

66. Title 28 USC 3002, Section 15 (A), "United States" is a Federal Corporation, not a government, including the Judicial Procedural Section.

67. Court Registry Investment System Charter and Operations Manual. (CRISC)

68. Committee on Uniform Securities Identification Procedures Minutes and Publications.

69. The Federal Prison Industry, Inc. Charter, d.b.a. UNICOR

70. The American Bar Association Style Manual.

71. Black's Law Dictionary, Fifth Edition.

72, Title 28 USC, Chapter 176, Federal Debt Collection Procedure - places all courts formerly operated by the United States of America, Inc. in equity and commerce venues under the (IMF) International Monetary Fund, that is, in receivership and acting as corporate tribunals of the IMF, including "STATE" franchise courts.

73. UNITED STATES is a commercial corporation chartered in France by the International Monetary Fund, an agency of the UNITED NATIONS chartered by the Vatican.

74. Maxims of Law including "Fraud vitiates everything."

75. Universal Postal Treaty for the Americas 2010.

76. Burton's Legal Thesaurus, 5th Edition.